Issue №4, 2020



Actors of Science Diplomacy Within the Context of Self-Development of the Arctic Territories (on the Example of Murmansk Region)


DOI: 10.34130/2070-4992-2020-4-46

Zaika Yu. V. — Junior Researcher, Department of Social Policy in the North, Luzin Institute for Economic Studies, Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Apatity, Russia, e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Full article 

As revealed from the previous study of 2019 on specific aspects of self-development of the local communities of the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation, one of the most active groups of regional actors involved in international collaborations are the scientific and educational entities (representing 40% value among the other groups of actors) [1]. This paper analyses the regional notion and institutional components of science diplomacy and takes a challenge to propose future actions to facilitate it. The study applies the qualitative research methods through the comparative and contextual analysis of the existing national and international legislation, acts, documents to summarize the practices, tools, actors, and stakeholders of science diplomacy at the regional level. As further discussed, science diplomacy in the Murmansk region takes different forms and can be shaped within the practices of national foreign policy and diplomacy as well as within the paradiplomatic activities of regional and municipal levels, including strong connections to science and education sectors. The new implementing concept of the Russian government for the foundation of the world-class research and educational centers may strengthen coherence of national actors of science diplomacy and facilitate cooperation within regions and between countries as discussed in this paper. The results of this research have the practical interest for the federal, regional and municipal governments to determine the future strategies and policies for international cooperation in the sphere of economic, scientific, and technical relations, as well as to enlarge the Russian program during the Chairmanship in the Arctic Council.

Keywords: international cooperation, science diplomacy, regional self-development, local communities, socioeconomic factors.


1. Zaika Yu. V., 2019 Cross-border cooperation as the factor for regional self-development in the Russian Arctic (by the example of Murmansk region). Corporate Governance and Innovative Economic Development of the North: Bulletin of Research Center of Corporate Law, Management and Venture Capital of Syktyvkar State University, No. 4, pр. 43–53. DOI: 10.34130/2070- 4992-2019-4-43-53.

2. Zubarevich N. V. Regiony Rossii: neravenstvo, krizis, modernizaciya [Regions of Russia: Inequality, Crisis, Modernization]. Moscow: Independent Institute for social policy, 2010, 160 p. (In Russian).

3. Pilyasov A. N. I poslednie stanut pervymi. Severnaya periferiya na puti k ekonomike znaniya [And the last will become the first: The Northern periphery on the way to knowledge economy]. Moscow: Librokom, 2009. 544 p. (In Russian).

4. Skufina T. P. The new regional policy in the context of the problem of balanced development of northern territories of Russia. Regional`naya e`konomika: teoriya i praktika [Regional economy: theory and practice], 2015, 29(404), pp. 25–34 (In Russian).

5. Riabova L. A. Local communities of the circumpolar North: trends and factors of social development. Sever i ry`nok: Formiruya novy`j e`konomicheskij poryadok [The North and the Market: Forming the Economic], 2011, Order 2, pp. 102–106. (In Russian).

6. Kolomak Е. A. Spatial development of Russia in the XXI century. Prostranstvennaya e`konomika [Spatial economy], 2019, No.4, pp. 85–106. (In Russian).

7. AMAP, 2017. Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic (AACA) — Barents Area Overview report. Oslo: Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.

8. Hansen K. G., Bitsch S., Zalkind L., 2013. Urbanization and the role of housing in the present development process in the Arctic. Oslo: Nordregio, pp. 102.

9. Order of the President of RF. The basics of state policy of the Russian Federation in the Arctic for the period to 2020 and further perspective. Moscow, 2008, No. 1969. Available at: (Accessed: 11.09.2020) (In Russian).

10. Riabova L. A. A new step in the development of international cooperation in the Barents region. Korporativnoe upravlenie i innovacionnoe razvitie e`konomiki Severa: Vestnik Nauchno-issledovatel`skogo centra korporativnogo prava, upravleniya i venchurnogo investirovaniya Sy`kty`vkarskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Corporate governance and innovative economic development of the North: Bulletin of the Research Center of Corporate Law, Management and Venture Investment of Syktyvkar State University], 2013, No.3, pp. 219–224. (In Russian).

11. Selin V. S., Skufina T. P., Bashmakova E. P., Toropushina E. E. Cever i Arktika v novoj paradigme mirovogo razvitiya: aktual'nye problemy, tendencii, perspektivy : nauchno-analiticheskij doklad [The North and the Arctic in new paradigm of world development: actual problems, tendencies, perspectives]. Apatity: Kola Science Center RAS Publishing, 2016, 420 p. (In Russian).

12. Skufina T. P. Social'no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie Murmanskoj oblasti: dinamika, zakonomernosti, regulirovanie : monografiya [Socioeconomic development of Murmansk region: dynamics, principles, regulation], ed. Skufina T. P., Toropushina E. E., Baranov S. V. Apatity: Kola Science Center RAS, 2017. 124 p. (In Russian).

13. Resolution of Murmansk region. The Strategy of socioeconomic development of Murmansk region to 2020 and the period to 2025. Murmansk, 2017. Available at: (Accessed: 11.09.2020) (In Russian).

14. Ibragimova K. A., Barabanov O. N., 2018. About the Prospects of the Russian Science Diplomacy. Vestnik RFBR, Russian Foundation for Basic Research, pp. 57–60.

15. The Royal Society, 2010. New Frontiers in Science Diplomacy. London: Science Policy Centre, The Royal Society, pp. 44.

16. Young O., Berkman P., Vylegzhanin A., 2020. Informed Decisionmaking for the Sustainability of Ecopolitical Regions. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-25674-6_15.

17. Berkman P., Kullerud L., Pope A., Vylegzhanin A., Young O., 2017. The Arctic Science Agreement propels science diplomacy. Science, Vol. 358, Issue 6363, pp. 596-598. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaq0890.

18. Gienow-Hecht J., Donfried M. (Eds.), 2010. Searching for a Cultural Diplomacy. Berghahn Books. Available at: (Accessed: 25.11.2020).

19. Sriramesh, Krishnamurthy, Verčič, Dejan (eds.), 2009. The global public relations handbook: Theory, research, and practice. Rev. ed. New York, London.

20. Rispoli G., Olšáková D., 2020. Science and Diplomacy around the Earth: From the Man and Biosphere Programme to the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme. Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences, 23 September, 2020, 50 (4), pp. 456–481. DOI:

21. Tayebi S., Moosavi S., Poorhashemi A., 2016. Environmental Diplomacy: A Framework for Growth of International Interaction and Cooperation for Achievement of Global Peace. Journal of Politics and Law, 9. 150. DOI: 10.5539/jpl.v9n9p150.

22. Brood head, LA., 2002. International Environmental Politics: the limits of Green Diplomacy. Lynne rienner publication, pp. 32.

23. Buhaug H., 2010. Reply to Burke et al.: bias and climate war research. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(51), pp. 186-187. DOI:

24. van Bergeijk P. G., Okano-Heijmans M., Melissen J. (Eds.), 2011. Economic Diplomacy. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Nijhoff. DOI:

25. Leijten J., 2017. Exploring the future of innovation diplomacy. Eur J Futures Res 5, 20. DOI:

26. Snow N., Taylor P. M. (eds.), 2009. The Routledge handbook of public diplomacy. New York, London.

27. Pamment J., 2013. New public diplomacy in the 21st century. London, New York.

28. UN, 1987. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Available at: ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/montreal_prot.shtml (accessed: 09.09.2020)

29. UNFCCC, 1997. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. Available at: (Accessed: 09.09.2020)

30. Rapley C., Bell R., Allison I., Bindschadler R., Casassa G., Chown S., Duhaime G., Kotlyakov V., Khun M., Orheim O., Pandey P., Petersen H., Schalke H., Janoschek W., Sarukhanian E., Zhang Z., 2004. A Framework for the International Polar Year 2007–2008. Planning Group.

31. Strategy for Developing the Russian Arctic Zone and Ensuring National Security until 2035 approved 26 October 2020. Available at: (Accessed: 11.09.2020). (In Russian).

32. Norway — Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. 2015. Panorama: Strategy for Cooperation on Higher Education and Research with Brazil, China, India, Japan, Russia and South Africa (2016-2020). Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.

33. Federal Law (№ 179-FZ), 2017. About the basics of transborder cooperation. Moscow. Available at: (Accessed: 13.09.2020). (In Russian).

34. Sergunin A., Joenniemi P., 2014. Paradiplomacy as a Sustainable Development Strategy: The Case of Russia’s Arctic Subnational Actors. Eurasia Border Review, 5(2) pp. 1–17.

35. Melchor L., 2020. What Is a Science Diplomat? The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 15(3), pp. 409–423. DOI:

36. Hintsala H., Niemelä S., Tervonen P., 2017. Arctic innovation hubs: opportunities for regional co-operation and collaboration in Oulu, Luleå, and Tromsø. Northern Review, 45, pp. 77–92.

37. Oulu University, 2019. Report of the preparatory work. Cross-border cooperation on innovation. pp. 60.

38. Zhuravleva E. V., Vorobyova T. N., Zakharova D. A., Zhabinskaya V. P. Achievements of the world-class level by the research and educational centres — trends, mechanisms, results. Dostizheniya nauki I techniki APK [Achievements of science and technology in agriculture], 2020. 34 (9), pp. 112-118. Available at: (Accessed 25.11.2020). (In Russian).

39. Savchenko E. S., Pavlova O. A., Zhuravleva E. V. World-class research and educational center as the driver of development. Dostizheniya nauki I techniki APK [Achievements of science and technology in agriculture], 2020. 34 (9), 5–8 Available at: (Accessed 25.11.2020). (In Russian).

For citation: Zaika Yu. V. Actors of science diplomacy within the context of self-development of the Arctic territories (on the example of Murmansk region) // Corporate Governance and Innovative Economic Development of the North: Bulletin of Research Center of Corporate Law, Management and Venture Investment of Syktyvkar State University. 2020. No. 4. Р. 46–54. DOI: 10.34130/2070-4992-2020-4-46